Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Case Study of Ted Bundy - 1365 Words

Ted Bundy Introduction Ted Bundy was one of the most vicious and notorious serial killers in United States history. His success in finding and slaughtering his prey was often due to his meticulous planning and preparation. In other moments he simply seized upon the opportunity to charm a woman he met without any prior planning and lured her to a place where he could kill her. He killed as many as 36 women, although authorities suggest that there may have been more victims than that. Was Bundy a classic case of a criminal whose activities can be linked to the Rational Choice theory? Do the principles of Trait theories explain his behaviors? This paper looks into those theories as they may or may not apply to the murderous life of Ted Bundy. This paper finds that Rational Choice theory fits the facts of Ted Bundys serial killing more appropriately than Trait theories. The Literature on Bundy and Appropriate Theories Looking into Bundys life, many of the facts and images from his early life stand in stark contrast to the vicious killings he engaged in. The young many Bundy was well behaved and grew up an attractive teen that was generally liked and who performed well in school, according to Charles Montaldo writing in About.com. When he enrolled in the University of Puget Sound, he did very well in his schoolwork but he was embarrassed that he had so little money and the students around him were far wealthier, so he transferred to the University of WashingtonShow MoreRelatedCase Study : Ted Bundy1221 Words   |  5 Pages Case Study: Ted Bundy Ted Bundy was born in Burlington, Vermont on November 24, 1946. He became his mother’s shame due to the fact he was conceived while she was unmarried and young. Eleanor Cowell, the mother of Ted Bundy had strict religious parents which put more pressure to the situation. Although there is not any information regarding the whereabouts of Ted’s father, Eleanor Cowell managed to deliver the child at a home for unmarried mothers. Eventually, she brought the child to her parentsRead MoreTed Bundy Case Study2485 Words   |  10 PagesTheodore â€Å"TED† BUNDY CASE Theodore â€Å"Ted† Bundy, the serial killer that was born as Theodore Robert Cowell, on November 24, 1946 killed between 1973 and 1978. He escaped from county jail two times before his last apprehension in February 1978. After so many years of so many denials, he eventually confessed to over thirty murders. Even though the actual number of murder victims is not known. It is estimated that the range of victims is from twenty-six to hundred. The wide-ranging estimate is thirty-fiveRead MoreCase Case Study : Ted Bundy1873 Words   |  8 PagesI decided to conduct my case study on Ted Bundy because his story and crimes always fascinated me and I wanted to attain a comprehensive understanding of what motivated him commit such horrific acts. Ted spent his early childhood growing up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with his mother and maternal grandparents where Bundy was raised to believe his mother was his sibling and his grandparents were his parents. When Ted discovered Louise de ceived him about his parentage, he developed a strained relationshipRead MoreCase Study Analysis of Ted Bundy1041 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿A Case Study Analysis of Ted Bundy Introduction A personality disorder can be described as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that is extremely inflexible, deviates markedly from the expectations of a persons culture, and causes personal distress or behavioral impairment (Bernstein, Nietzel, McCauley Foust, 1997). Such patterns of problems in the personality of an individual can be traced to adolescence or even childhood. People who have been diagnosed with personalityRead MoreCase Study: Ted Bundy Essay2279 Words   |  10 Pages Theodore Robert Bundy was born Theodore Robert Cowell on November 24, 1949.His mother, Louise Cowell was unmarried at the time, and the name of his biological father has never been determined with certainty, however Lloyd Marshall was named on his birth certificate. Louise moved into her parent’s home shortly after Ted’s birth and allowed him to be raised as her ‘brother’ for quite some time. When Ted’s mother married Johnnie Culpepper Bundy in May 1 951 in Tacoma, Washington, when Theodore was fourRead MoreTed Bundy : The Most Notorious Criminals Of The 20th Century1716 Words   |  7 Pages Ted Bundy Ted Bundy is considered as one of the America’s most notorious criminals of the 20th century. He confessed to around 28 murders, but thought to be responsible for hundreds of deaths. He escaped custody killing at least three people, two college students and a twelve year old, before he was caught again and executed. While Ted Bundy is known for his charm, and many people believe he is a striking and intelligent man, he has a very troubled past; Bundy is remembered as a notorious serialRead MoreTed Bundy: Unlikely Serial Killer1415 Words   |  6 PagesTed Bundy: Unlikely Serial Killer Americans were shocked in the 1970s when authorities began reporting a string of disappearances of young women from Washington, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, Florida and Oregon. The man behind these crimes was Theodore (Ted) Bundy. Many people still consider him to be one of the most notorious serial killers of all time and was once one of the FBI’s most wanted. He was officially tied to 36 murders, however he is believed to have committed more than one hundred. TheRead MorePsychology of Serial Killers1430 Words   |  6 PagesWe serial killers are your sons, we are your husbands we are everywhere. And there will be more of your children dead tomorrow. Theodore Robert Bundy In the past decade, Americans and researchers have given more and more of their attention to serial killers. The United States alone has contributed about 85% of the worlds serial killers. It has been said that they come in many different forms. Society has many words for serial killers. Holmes and DeBurger define serial murders as consistingRead MoreTed Bundy s Influence On The Family1591 Words   |  7 PagesTed Bundy was born on November 24, 1946 in Burlington, Vermont, bringing much disgrace to his mother and family. Bundy was born out of wed lock, his mother Eleanor Louis Cowell was twenty-two and was raised in an overly religious household. Cowell moved back home to Philadelphia with her parents to raise her new son. To hide the fact that he was an illegitimate child, Bundy was raised to believe his grandparents were his parents and his mother was his sister. They moved soon thereafter to TacomaRead MoreBiography Of Theodore Bundy Born Theodore1561 Words   |  7 PagesT heodore Bundy born Theodore Robert Cowell was born in Burlington, Vermont to Eleanor Cowell. He was born on November 24, 1946. She had him when she was still a teeneager and so Ted was raised believing that she was his sister. His birth father is somewhat confusing on his birth certificate it has Lloyd Marshall but investigators believe that his real father s name was Jack Worthington. Ted’s mother married Johnnie Bundy who eventually adopted Ted as his son. Ted Bundy became interested in knives

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

WTO and GATT REGULATION - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1109 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Politics Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? WTO REGULATION GATT was established in 1947 with 23 members, there were eight negotiation rounds between all these countries. The first 6 rounds were about reducing the tariff rates. The 7th Tokyo Round Agreement on following Article VII of the GATT was signed in 1979. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "WTO and GATT REGULATION" essay for you Create order There were several topics discussed and got successful results. The results of agreement reached to bring the average tariff on industrial products reduced to 4.7%; to reduce tariff when it was over eight years; to get the non-tariff barriers obstacles. WTO is an international organization who has 160 members, led by a director general with 640 staff committed to deal with the rules of trade between countries. WTO covers trade in services and trade-related intellectual property rights than GATT rules applied to only merchandise goods. WTO commitments are fully and functionally permanent instead of GATTà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s provisional basis. Finally, GATT was replaced by WTO following Article VII in 1993 in according to the Uruguay Round. The Principles of WTO agreement were intended to provide a fair, uniform and neutral (FUN) system for the valuation of goods for customs purpose. This Agreement essentially applied that the value for duty should be based on the actually price actua lly paid or payable for the imported goodsto be the transaction value. The value for duty also should conform to commercial realities. The agreement also refused to use of Arbitrary, fictitious for customs values. WTO agreement gives the right of the customs administrations to request further information of importers where they have reason to doubt the declared value of imported goods. Transaction Value Method (By Guoping Lu) The transaction value is determined by finding out the price paid or payable for the goods when the goods are sold for export to Canada to a purchaser who is in Canada, and adjusting the price paid or payable by following the section 48of the Customs Act. WTO generalized the transaction value as the primary method of evaluation as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Price actually paid or payableà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  on imported goods. In determining the Transaction Value, the price paid or payable may be adjusted and subjected to some additions or some deductions. As we usually do in Canada Customs Invoice, if the following ones are not indicated in field 17 which is the total invoice, price paid or payable, then they have to be added: Thedomestic transportation fees and insurance charges in Canada; Commission fees; Royalties fees; Assists; (The Canadian purchaser supplies a free or less cost on the value of the imported goods which are used for the production and sale.) The packing cost; Subsequent proceeds; If the following ones are indicated in field 17 which is the total invoice, price paid or payable in CCI, then they have to be deducted: The international transportation and insurance charges form other country to Canada; Construction, erection assembly costs; Imported duties and taxes. We can find more information about the transaction value method from D-Memorandum 13. COMPUTED RESIDUAL METHOD-XIAOBING YANG Computed value (Section 52 of the Customs Act VFDC 18/28) The computed value method is used for the imported goods cannot determine the value for duty under any of the previous methods of valuation. Therefore, in order to determine a value for duty under the computed value method, it is important to collect the information form the country of the goods. In the section 52 of Customs Act, there are key elements to be consisted to computed value: The cost of materials employed in producing goods Costs to the production of imported goods Profit and general expenses. For example, a Canadian company A purchases equipment from a foreign firm B. The company A cannot apply the methods of valuation from the section 48-51 of the Customs Act, the value of duty is determined under section 52. There is example illustrate for the calculation of the computed value method. According to the section 52 of the Act, all the cost, charge, expenses are added to the goods. materials $16 Producing cost $12 Packing $1 assists $1 total $30 Profit General expenses 25% x30=$7.5 Value for duty $37.5 Residual Value (Section 53 of the Customs Act VFDC19/29) By XIAO BING YANG There are some importations that cannot be appraised on the basis of any of the values referred to previous methods, the value for duty of those goods would apply the residual method described in section 53. In fact, the residual value method does not provide the specific rules to determine value for duty. According to section 53 that allows for the flexible interpretation of one of previous methods in sequence. Also, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“in applying section 53 of the Act, the value for duty is to be determined on the basis of information available in Canada (Customs Act)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . In the real would, these are two import principles to determine the closer method under the section 53. WORK CITED CBSA. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Computed Value Method- Memorandum D13-8-1.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Govt.of Canada, Feb.04.2014.Web.17.Nov.2014. CBSA. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Residual Basis of Appraisal Method- Memorandum D.à ¢Ã¢â€ š ¬Ã‚  Govt.of Canada, Nov.19.2013. Web.17.Nov.2014. TRANSACTION VALUE METHOD- GUOPING LU The transaction value is determined by ascertaining the price paid or paid for the goods when the goods are sold for export to Canada to a purchaser in Canada, and adjusting the price paid or payable in according to thesubsection 48(5)of the Customs Act. WTO summarized the transaction value as the primary source of appraisal on imported goods as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Price actually paid or payableà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  which means total payment. In determining the Transaction Value, the price paid or payable may be subject to additions or deductions. To the extent that they are not already included in the price paid or payable, amounts equal to the following are to be added: (a)certain commissions and brokerage; (b)all packing costs and charges; (c)the value of certain goods and services provided free or at a reduced charge by the purchaser for use in the production of the imported goods (assists); (d)certain royalties and licence fees; (e)the value of any proceeds from the subsequent resale, disposal, or use of the goods which accrue to the vendor; and (f)the costs of transportation and associated costs relating to the movement of the goods to and at the place from which the goods were shipped directly to Canada. To the extent that they are already included in the price paid or payable, amounts equal to the following are to be deducted: (a)the costs of transportation and associated costs relating to the movement of the goods from the place from which the goods were shipped directly to Canada; (b)certain costs, charges, or expenses incurred or arising after importation in respect of the goods being appraised; and (c)Canadian duties and taxes. Work cited CBSA. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Transaction Valuation- Memorandum D13-4-1.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Govt.of Canada, 17 April 2001.Web. 17 Nov.2014.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Rice Seeds Free Essays

Table 1 Shoot and root length of a dicot and a monocot seedling Shoot Length (cm)| Root length (cm)| | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Average| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Average| Day 1| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| Day 2| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 1. 1| 1. 0| 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Rice Seeds or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2| 1. 0| 0| 0. 86| Day 3| 1| 0. 5| 1| 1| 1| 0. 9| 2| 2| 2| 2| 2. 1| 2. 02| Day 4| 1. 2| 1| 1| 1. 1| 1| 1. 6| 2. 5| 2. 5| 3| 3| 2. 5| 2. 7| Day 5| 2. 1| 2| 1. 3| 2| 1. 3| 1. 74| 3| 3. 1| 3. 2| 3. 2| 3| 3. 1| Day 6| 2. 1| 2. 1| 2. 1| 2. 1| 2. 1| 2. 1| 5| 3. 5| 4| 3| 5| 4. 1| Day 7| 2. 5| 2. 5| 2. 2| 2. 5| 2. 5| 2. 44| 5. 5| 4. 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| Table 2 Breaking dormancy of Leucaena leucophala seeds Treatment| % Germination| | R E P L I C A T I O N| | 1| 2| Average| Rubbing on sandpaper| 0%| 0%| 0%| Clipping| 0%| 1%| 0. 5%| Soaking in hot water (50 degrees Celcius)| 0%| 0%| 0%| Control| 6%| 0%| 3| The experiment has shown that by clipping the seeds perhaps germination of the seed can be attain. Rubbing the seed with sandpaper can break the dormancy as well as it can also break and kill the seed. Soaking the seeds in hot water can also break the hardness of the coat of the seed thus can also kill the developing parts of the seeds of the plant. Clipping can be considered as an effective way of breaking the dormancy of the seed thus in some unexpected ways or inaccurate work, the seeds may be damaged and may not germinate. Table 3. 1 Effect of initial moisture content on the storability of rice seeds I. Effect of initial moisture content on the storability of rice seeds Treatment| % Germination| | R E P L I C A T I O N| | 1| 2| Average| | After 3 days| After 7 days| After 3 days| After 7 days| | 11% moisture content| 12%| | 12%| | 16%| 20% moisture content| 0%| 16%| 0%| 12%| 14%| The results have shown that the rice seed treated with 11% moisture content have higher percent of germination as compared with the rice seed treated with 20% moisture content. Rice seeds are known to be an orthodox type of seeds. Orthodox type of seeds are seeds which are needed to be stored with low moisture content under conditions at low temperature and low humidity. This means that in order to attain and make the seeds germinate these seeds must be maintained at low moisture content. Table 3. 2 Storability of recalcitrant seeds Treatment| % Germination after one week| Freshly extracted| 80%| Stored for one week| 0%| The results have shown that the cacao seeds which are freshly extracted have higher percent of germination as compared with the cacao seeds stored for one week. Cacao seeds are known to be recalcitrant type of seeds. This means that this type of seeds should have been planted after they are extracted. These seeds should not be stored long to attain a high percent of germination. Since the seeds are stored for seven days or one week the seeds will no longer germinate because it has already dried up and this type of seed must be stored without reduction in their moisture. How to cite Rice Seeds, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Tumor Lysis Syndrome free essay sample

Tumor Lysis Syndrome by NinjaMom Tumor Lysis Syndrome is a series of metabolic derangements which may begin shortly after the onset of treatment of malignancies. It can lead to any of the following:  · hyperphosphatemia · lactic acidosis (metabolic acidosis)  · hypocalcemia · hyperuricemia  · hyperkalemia · acute renal failure Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS):  · is caused by the destruction of many rapidly proliferating neoplastic cells  · is most commonly associated with a Burkitts lymphoma or acute lymphocytic leukemia  · can occur after treatment of nearly any malignancy  · occurs shortly (1-5 days) after onset of chemotherapy can occur spontaneously, but this is rare There are no definite parameters to diagnosing TLS, but there is a guideline as to how to measure disease severity. This is the Cairo-Bishop method. Laboratory TLS two or more of the following:  · uric acid level gt; 8 · potassium level gt; 6  · phosphorus level gt; 4. 5 · calcium level lt; 7 Clinical TLS any of the above laboratory values with an elevated serum creatinine, a new arrhythmia, seizure or sudden death Hyperphosphatemia  · caused by the release of intracellular phosphate pools within tumor cells  · causes a reciprocal decrease in serum calcium, which then causes the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the renal tubules and in the microvasculature, and can lead to acute renal failure  · treat with oral phosphate binders Hypocalcemia  · usually a reciprocal decrease caused by hyperphosphatemia  · QT prolongation  · positive Chvostek and Trousseaus signs  · bronchospasm, seizures, anxiety, tetany, encephalopathy, unexplained dementia or psychosis, parasthesias  · often resolves without intervention as the phosphate levels return to normal  · do NOT correct unless severe neurological symptoms present as this may predispose the patient to hypercalcemia as the phosphate levels normalize Hyperkalemia  · caused by intracellular potassium release from tumor lysis  · worsed with a metabolic acidosis  · shortened QT interval, peaked T waves, flattened P waves, prolonged PR interval, wide QRS, deep S wave, sine waves, ventricular arrhythmias, asystole, death  · often the first life-threatening abnormality identified  · treat with restriction of dietary potassium, kayexelate, and IV glucose and insulin  · if K gt; 6. We will write a custom essay sample on Tumor Lysis Syndrome or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 5, calcium gluconate or calcium carbonate may be given for cardioprotecion Hyperuricemia  · caused by the rapid turnover of nucleic acids uric acid can precipitate in the tubules, medulla, and collecting ducts of the kidney  · elevated levels can lead to nausea/vomiting, arthralgias, and lethargy  · worsened by a metabolic acidosis  · treat with allopurinol  · may treat with rasburicase  · may magnify clinical hypocalcemia  · if prior treatment ineffective, acetazolamide may be used Metabolic Acidosis  · caused by release of endogenous intracellular acids  · elevated anion gap  · decreased serum bicarbonate levels  · decreased uric acid solubility  · increased calcium phosphate solubility Acute Renal Failure  · oligoanuric  · causes volume overload, pulmonary edema precipitated by uric acid crystallization, calcium phosphate crystallization  · if conservative medical management does not correct these abnormalities, emergent dialysis is warranted to prev ent permanent kidney damage The likelihood of developing TLS depends on several factors:  · tumor burden · renal function  · uric acid level · LDH level  · tumor sensitivity to treatment · elderly age Pre-treatment care:  · CBC · LDH level  · CMP · uric acid level  · ionized calcium · hydration  ·possible pre-alkalinization of the urine Post-treatment care:  · close monitoring for 48-72 hours after treatment continuous cardiac monitoring  · hydration  · BUNs TID  · measurement of urine pH TID  · dialysis if indicated References Berkow, Robert, M. D. et al, eds. Tumor Lysis Syndrome. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 13th ed. New Jersey: Merck Co. , Inc. 1977. Braunwald, Eugene, M. D. et al, eds. Tumor Lysis Syndrome. Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. Fernandez, Pedro, M. D. , Richard Larson, M. D. , and Zalman Agus, M. D. Tumor Lysis Syndrome. www. uptodate. com 2007. Ikeda, Alan, M. D. et al. Tumor Lysis Syndrome. www. emedicine. com. 2006.

Monday, March 30, 2020

Washington DC free essay sample

My bill is the next on the docket. It’s the middle of the day at the JSA convention in Washington D.C.. It’s my turn to say what I think should be done. You’ve done this over and over. You’ve got this. I walk up to the podium and give the speech I have repeated over and over in my head for days. It goes well. I sit down and talk to my friends, one of whom I’ve known for a while and the other I have just met. We hear the con speech next and subsequent speeches by either side. I appear to have support and it should be close. Finally, we take a vote. Apparently the speech didn’t go well. My bill didn’t pass. I ask my partner, who is doing his speech in the House of Representatives section, if it passed in his room. We will write a custom essay sample on Washington DC or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It didn’t pass there, either. I don’t get to take my bill before the full congress, but that doesn’t mean I’m done with the convention. I still have two days left to listen to the other 800 people talk about what they think is right. I still get to voice my opinion on these issues. I still get the chance to decide whose bills pass and whose don’t. My bill didn’t pass this year, but next year I will be back to try again.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

buy custom The Work of an Information Technology essay

buy custom The Work of an Information Technology essay The work of an Information Technology professional focuses on the use of technology in developing an organization with information services. The work entails networking, installation of backup or recovery systems, domain setup, and hardware installation. Work in the context of an It professional in a university entails providing infrastructure services for the institution. Some of these services include project management, linking users to IT services and process improvement, for instance, an Information Technology Infrastructure Library. The main aim of an IT professional in such an institution is to ensure that sound infrastructure links the organizations technical and service structure thus; provide a conducive environment for learning. The impact of IT work can be seen in the improvement of effectiveness of service delivery to students and staff, a very important facet in organizational development (Marilu, Kathleen Keith 2006). The outcome of the work conducted by IT professionals entails putting efforts on all members of the organization to work towards improving organizational operations. This will enable the organization to serve its students and staff while fulfilling its mission and vision. These operations can only be achieved if the information technology systems are well installed and operated. Information security is the one of the key challenges facing IT professionals. Every person is using the web to exploit opportunities and rsources that come with it. However, there are also people and organizations who have already spelt doom for the IT profession. Hackers use the same web to attack and bring down information systems belonging to various organizations. In the past, companies relied on IT professional in managing computer, information, and network security. The increasing threat to the systems has forced companies to hire information security personnel to help in managing all security issues. The other challenge is that IT experts need to undergo further training than in the past. They have to be trained in engineering security and operations management among other complex issues that surround information sensitive organizations. IT experts have to be knowledgeable in the novel technologies used in e-commerce. Most organizations embrace these new technologies without knowing that even the hackers are developing novel ways of hacking. New systems are of key interest to hackers since most organizations are not conversant with their operations. It is vital to note that, an IT professional has to think ahead, brainstorm any imaginable threat like fraud, and mitigate it. E-commerce sector comprises of Business-to-Business enterprises and Business-to-Customer. The problem of network security is a very big issue to the IT professionals. Trojans, worms and viruses can be sent through constant e-mails, spam, and messages that may appear to be of no harm to many people and organizations. IT professionals have many opportunities in the Information Technology sector. One can train as an IT information expert and his work will be to detect any threat to the information systems of an organization. IT professionals can also use their skills to build systems that are hacker-proof and sell to several organizations. On the same line, they can take advantage of the knowledge in their field and use it to establish e-commerce activities that will earn them income. In the real world development, for instance, in Kansas University, IT professionals have set up an information systems that enables the university to achieve its goals. Information services delivery has been very effective especially with the set up of an information system library that is in use by both students and staff. The structure of information services at the university enables students to access services, thus the creation of an organizational learning infrastructure. The challenges at the University involve safeguarding the information systems from hackers (Sambamurthy, Brown, 1999). The networks have also to be protected since hacking may damage the whole network. The opportunities involve working as an information security expert to mitigate the threats posed by hackers. In my opinion, the IT field is full of many opportunities for students who intend to study this field. One can work as an information security expert, design systems that are hacker-proof or start an e-commerce enterprise. Buy custom The Work of an Information Technology essay

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Fan Crimes at Sporting Events Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fan Crimes at Sporting Events - Research Paper Example This has been an ongoing problem for many years, despite efforts to curb the behavior, such as preventing many stadiums from selling alcohol on the premises. Criminal activities among fans at sporting games tend to focus around violence against other fans, but they also include vandalism, rioting behavior and other criminal acts. These acts are driven by the interaction of a number of different factors, including the fierce loyalty that many fans have towards their teams, the atmosphere present at a sporting event, the emotions that are associated with the outcome of the game, the size of the crowd and the presence of alcohol. These factors interact to produce a charged atmosphere, where it is easy for fans to take events or conversations out of context and to react in an extreme manner. Not all attendees of a sporting event are the same. They come to the event with different desires and for different reasons. Many are casual watchers, who enjoy viewing the game, are not overly conce rned about the outcome and who like the atmosphere that is present. However, some fans are more devoted to their team, and whether they win or lose is of significant consequence to these fans, and they can often feel cheated or disheartened if their team loses. This is particularly true if there was some aspect of the game that is contested, such as when it is not evident whether a move by the opposing team was legal. These are the fans. They have one team that they follow and consider to be their own. They will attend as many games, which their team is in as possible, and listen to information on the game on television or radio if attending is not possible. Many fans wear their team colors to games or team shirts in day-to-day life. Others will paint their faces or carry props associated with their team to the game . For fans, there is a lot at stake in any game, and regardless of the result, emotions will run high. A sporting event consists of two teams playing each other; one of which will win and the other will lose (except in the case of a draw, which is only possible in some sporting games). Whatever the outcome of the game is, some observers will be pleased with it and others will be upset. The sports event environment involves a strong clash of cultures as each team has its own fans that have their own distinct opinions, beliefs and desires. This can be especially prevalent where the two teams are from different states or different countries. Additionally, sports games have the ability to draw in large crowds of fans and the concentration of people can increase the opportunity for altercations or disputes to occur between the fans . The polarity between the sets of fans alone is often enough to cause disputes as there are occasional, although much rarer, reports of fan altercation outside of a sports event. For example, in some American cities, wearing a shirt of an opposing team will result in substantial heckling. In a sporting event, not only is thi s polarity present, but these fans are in a confined space for many hours with many other people, some of who they agree with, some that they do not. Alcohol is often seen as a playing a pivotal role in the behavior of fans at a sporting event. It is well known to decrease inhibitions and has been documented to result in an increase in aggressive behavior, an effect that is intensified when the fans are already frustrated , such as from a game that is not going well or from